Prostitution is NOT the world's oldest profession. The first recorded forms of prostitution occur after humans invented slavery. (1) Prostitution is not the oldest job, it's the oldest lie! Pimping is the oldest profession. (2)
Prostitution is a global industry in which sex is traded for money, clothing, food, drugs, shelter, or favors. Prostitution is an industry of sexual exploitation that includes strip bars, lap-dancing clubs, massage parlors, brothels, saunas, adult and child pornography, street walking, live sex shows, phone sex, prostitution rings, internet pornography, escort services, peep shows, ritual abuse, and mail order bride services. In the U.S., only 10% to 20% of prostitution is street-based. (3)
It is wrong to assume that women in prostitution sign up for prostitution in one location and stay there. They usually get moved between different kinds of prostitution. One study found that 59% of its 119 U.S.respondents had been in one or more types of indoor prostitution (such as strip club, massage parlor, escort prostitution) in addition to street prostitution. (4) In similar findings, Melissa Farley found that 46 New Zealand interviewees had been in many different kinds of prostitution, including escort, strip club, phone sex, Internet prostitution, peep show, bar prostitution, street prostitution, brothel prostitution, and prostitution associated with a military base. (5)
"[P]rostitution is sponsored by the state in the Netherlands, Germany, Australia, and New Zealand, among others. Where it is not state-sponsored, it is culturally promoted even in states where laws against prostitution are in place, such as the United States and Mexico."
-- Melissa Farley.(6)
90% of prostituted women interviewed by WHISPER had pimps while in prostitution. (7) Pimps target girls or women who seem naive, lonely, homeless, and rebellious. At first, the attention and feigned affection from the pimp convinces her to "be his woman." Pimps ultimately keep prostituted women in virtual captivity by verbal abuse - making a woman feel that she is utterly worthless: a toilet, a piece of trash; and by physical coercion - beatings and the threat of torture. 80% to 95% of all prostitution is pimp-controlled. (8)
Verbal abuse of prostitutes is pervasive: 88% of 315 prostituting women and adolescents in Canada, Colombia, and Mexico described verbal abuse as intrinsic to prostitution. (9)
Men call up the image of the whore when they are abusing their partners. The accusations in between the kicks and slaps: "You slut....whore...." Historically, the words mean "subhuman," "having no rights," "invisible," and "wicked." As recently as 1991, police in a southern California community closed all rape reports made by prostitutes and addicts, placing them in a file stamped "NHI." The letters stand for the words "No Human Involved." (10)
Estimates of the prevalence of history of incest and/or child sexual abuse among prostitutes range from 65% to 90%. The Council for Prostitution Alternatives, Portland, Oregon Annual Report in 1991 stated that: 85% of prostitutes (who frequented the CPA) reported history of sexual abuse in childhood; 70% reported incest. (11) The higher percentages (80%-90%) of reports of incest and childhood sexual assaults of prostitutes come from anecdotal reports and from clinicians working with prostitutes. (12)
Explaining the link between child abuse and prostitution, one woman stated: "From my incest experiences, I learned that sex was associated with degradation, humiliation, powerlessness and pain... By turning tricks, I was re-enacting my trauma... The encounters I had as a prostitute were "secret" like my incest experience; they were degrading, and in the end, I was abandoned. My father would just leave me there after sexually molesting me and act like nothing happened the next day." (13)
"Incest is boot camp [for prostitution.]"
-- Andrea Dworkin. (14)
The average age of entry into prostitution is 13 years (15) or 14 years. (16) Most of these 13 or 14 year old girls were recruited or coerced into prostitution. Others were "traditional wives" without job skills who escaped from or were abandoned by abusive husbands and went into prostitution to support themselves and their children. (17)
Prostitution is an act of violence against women which is intrinsically traumatizing. In a study of 854 people in prostitution (most of them women and children, but also men, and the transgendered) from nine countries (Canada, Colombia, Germany, Mexico, South Africa, Thailand, Turkey, USA, and Zambia):
57% reported having been raped in prostitution;
73% reported having experienced physical assault in prostitution;
49% had pornography made of them;
75% were currently or formerly homeless; and
89% stated that they wanted to escape prostitution immediately. (18)
Of 200 prostitutes interviewed in San Francisco:
96% were runaways prior to starting prostitution;
38% had had sexually explicit photographs taken of them when they were children for commercial purpose;
85% had been molested or raped as children (2/3 of the molesters were fathers, stepfathers, or foster fathers);
78% had started prostituting before age 18;
75% had had a religious upbringing;
62% had been beaten by their parents;
70% had been raped in prostitution; and
44% had attempted suicide. (19)
Of 100 prostituted women interviewed in Vancouver (Canada):
82% reported childhood sexual abuse, by an average of four different perpetrators, and 72% reported childhood physical abuse by a parent or caregiver as antecedents to prostitution;
90% had been physically assaulted in prostitution; 78% had been raped; 75% had suffered bodily injuries; and 67% had pornography made of them. (20)
Trying to distinguish pornography from prostitution makes as little sense as trying to differentiate trafficking (which is simply the global form of prostitution) from prostitution: pornography is merely the documentation of prostitution. (21)
85% of prostitutes are raped by pimps. (22)
78% of 55 women who sought help from the Council for Prostitution Alternatives in 1991 reported being raped an average of 16 times a year by pimps, and were raped 33 times a year by johns. (23)
"We usually don't see prostitution as domestic violence because it is just too painful: "...the carnage: the scale of it, the dailiness of it, the seeming inevitability of it; the torture, the rapes, the murders, the beatings, the despair, the hollowing out of the personality, the near extinguishment of hope commonly suffered by women in prostitution."
-- Margaret A. Baldwin. (24)
Like combat veterans, women in prostitution suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a psychological reaction to extreme physical and emotional trauma. Symptoms are acute anxiety, depression, insomnia, irritability, flashbacks, emotional numbing, and being in a state of emotional and physical hyperalertness. 67% of those in prostitution from five countries met criteria for a diagnosis of PTSD at a rate similar to that of battered women, rape victims, and state-sponsored torture survivors. (25)
The answer to the question "why do prostitutes stay with their pimps?" is the same as the answer to the question "why do battered women stay with their batterers?" (26) Humans bond emotionally to their abusers as a psychological strategy to survive under conditions of captivity. This has been described as the Stockholm syndrome. (27)
An Amsterdam research summarized the health problems of women in prostitution: exhaustion, frequent viral illness, STD's, vaginal infections, backaches, sleeplessness, depression, headaches, stomachaches, and eating disorders. (28) Women who were used by more johns in prostitution reported more severe physical symptoms. (29)
The more time women spent in prostitution, the more STD's they reported. (30)
Remember that most prostitutes are survivors of child sexual abuse. Victims of child sexual abuse report more substance abuse problems. 70-80% of sexual abuse survivors report excessive drug and alcohol use. Young girls who are sexually abused are 3 times more likely to develop psychiatric disorders or alcohol and drug abuse in adulthood, than girls who are not sexually abused. (31)
Although there is a misconception that a large majority of prostitutes are drug-abusing women who entered prostitution to pay for a drug habit, a number of studies have shown that women increase recreational drug use to the point of addiction AFTER entry into prostitution. (32)
8% of women receiving treatment for addiction reported that drug abuse preceded prostitution, whereas 39% reported that prostitution preceded drug abuse. (33) In another study, 60% of a group of Venezuelan women in prostitution began abusing drugs and alcohol only after entry into prostitution. (34)
Kramer L. (35) and Gossop M. et al. (36) discuss women's use of drugs and alcohol to deal with the overwhelming emotions experienced while turning tricks. (37)
"Many people prefer to view prostitution as a "lifestyle choice", or even as an "addiction" to a lifestyle. They think that most people in the sex industry are there to support their drug habit, when actually the drugs are used to cope with what is happenning to their lives. Society assumes that nothing can be done to help them, so there is no need to try; the pimps count on it." says Joe Parker, of the Lola Greene Baldwin Foundation. Drugs are used in prostitution both as a way for prostituted women to help dissociate -- thus help cope with the pain of prostituting --, and by their pimps as a way of controlling them through addicting them to drugs. (38)
PROSTITUTION IS NOT SAFER IF INDOORS:
"Women and children can be controlled in indoor prostitution in ways they cannot be controlled on the street. They can be locked in their rooms, heavily drugged, restrained, and beaten. Pimps who run indoor prostitution are no less dangerous than pimps who are visible on the street... Indoor prostitution, above all, protects the trick. Men are physically and psychologically safer when prostitution is indoors. [Ronald] Weitzer and others who support indoor prostitution contrast it with street prostitution on the basis of indoor prostitution's invisibility to the community, sometimes refering to it as "discrete". This perspective reflects the interests of tricks for privacy, anonymity, and constant access to women in prostitution with minimal risk of arrest even where prostitution is illegal."
-- Researcher Melissa Farley. (39)
Researchers have suggested that women in indoor prostitution (such as strip clubs, massage parlors, brothels, and pornography) had LESS control of the conditions of their lives and probably faced greater risks of exploitation, enslavement, and physical harm than women prostituting on the street. (40)
"Prostitution is multitraumatic whether its physical location is in clubs, brothels, hotels/motels/johns' homes (also called escort prostitution or high class call girl prostitution), motor vehicles or the streets. Women have told us that they felt safer in street prostitution compared to (legal) Nevada brothels, where they were not permitted to reject any customers."
-- Researcher Melissa Farley. (41)
Women in Chicago reported the same frequency of rape in escort and in street prostitution. (42)
The mere fact of prostituting indoors does not protect women from violence -- both rape and serious physical assaults occurred in off street locations as British women prostituted in Edinburgh, Glasgow and Leeds reported. (43)
The authors of a research found that women prostituted in strip clubs had higher rates of dissociative and other psychiatric symptoms than those in street prostitution. (44)
No difference in the incidence of PTSD was found between women prostituting in brothel and others prostituting on the street in South Africa. (45)
No differences in the incidence of physical assault, rape in prostitution, childhood sexual abuse, and symptoms of PTSD were found in a comparison of stripclub, massage, brothel, and street prostitution in Mexico. No differences were found in the percentages of women in brothel, street, or stripclub/massage prostitution who wanted to escape prostitution. (46)
LEGALIZING PROSTITUTION DOES NOT MAKE THINGS BETTER:
A Critical Examination of Responses to Prostitution in Four Countries (Australia, Ireland, the Netherlands, and Sweden) concluded the legalization in Australia and the Netherlands led to a dramatic increase in all facets of the sex industry, a dramatic increase in the involvement of organized crime in the sex industry, a dramatic increase in child prostitution, an explosion in the number of foreign women and girls trafficked into the region, and indications of an increase in violence against women. (47)
In one of her essays, Janice G. Raymond, co-executive director of the Coalition Against Trafficking in Women, explained and mentioned the studies that prove that legalization/decriminalization of prostitution:
-- is a gift to pimps, traffickers and the sex industry;
-- promotes sex trafficking;
-- does not control the sex industry, but expands it;
-- increases clandestine, illegal and street prostitution;
-- increases child prostitution;
-- does not protect the women in prostitution;
-- increases the demand for prostitution by encouraging men to buy women for sex in a wider and more permissible range of socially acceptable settings;
-- does not promote women's health (as many johns still demand sex with prostitutes to be without condoms); and
-- does not enhance women's choice (as most women in prostitution did not make a rational choice to enter prostitution from among a range of other options). (48)
One report found that 80% of women in the brothels of the Netherlands were trafficked from other countries. (49)
Noting the link between legalization and trafficking in Australia, the US Department of State observed: "Trafficking in East Asian women for the sex trade is a growing problem... lax laws -- including legalized prostitution in parts of the country -- make [anti-trafficking] enforcement difficult at the working level." (50)
Legalization in Victoria (Australia) was intended to eliminate organized crime from the sex industry. Exactly the reverse has happenned: legalization brought with it an explosion in the trafficking of women into prostitution by organized crime. (51)
Legalization led to massive expansion of the Australian sex industry, both legally and illegally: An investigative report by Victoria's Age newspaper in 1999, found an increase in the number of legal brothels from 40 a decade before to 94 in 1999, along with 84 escort agencies. Ironically, the real growth area was in the illegal sector. The over 100 unlicensed brothels outnumbered the "legitimate' sex businesses in 1999 and had trebled in 12 months." (52)
For women prostituted in legal brothels, managers and owners demand up to 50% to 60% of takings. (53)
According to Jocelyn Snow of the Prostitutes Collective of Victoria (Australia), her study of the impact of legalization on the conditions of exploitation faced by prostituted women found "The worst thing was the clients. The arrogance, the smelliness, the violence, the demands. One in five clients still request unsafe sex." (54)
Because it is generally the johns who control the acts of prostitution, Occupational Health and Safety regulations have failed. The Victorian government, in its 2001 impact statement did note that condoms "were not always acceptable to some users of specific sex worker services." (55) In an Australian sociology study, researchers revealed that "client resistance, whether in the form of threats or enticements, was a continual obstacle to be overcome by negotiation in the sexual encounter" and that "in some licensed brothels where, although in contravention of the law, management did not insist on condom use for all services, women experienced competition from other workers and considerable pressure from clients." (56)
One of the arguments that supported legalization was that it would help end child prostitution. However, there are 3000 children, some younger than 10, in the Australian sex industry, which includes brothels, escort work, street prostitution, pornography, sex for favors and stripping. 59 of 2,992 prostitutes studied for a report conducted by ECPAT (End Child Prostitution And Trafficking) were between 10 and 12 years old. 15 were under 10 years old. Two-thirds were girls. (57)
Child prostitution has increased dramatically in the state of Victoria compared to other Australian states where prostitution has not been legalized. In Australia, the highest number of reported incidences of child prostitution came from Victoria. (58)
Child prostitution in Australia was studied by ECPAT, which collected information from early 471 government and non-government agencies working with children. The study, the first of its kind, revealed a vicious cycle leading to child commercial sexual activities. Links were found between young people being sold and youth homelessness, dysfunctional family backgrounds and lack of self-esteem. The government and public should act immediately to provide housing, income security, education and advice to young people. Children are also sold to sex tourists. Parents have been found to sell their own children. More than 1200 Victorian children are involved in prostitution - the highest rate in the nation. 320 Queensland children were involved in child prostitution. More than 3100 Australian children aged 12-18 sold sex to survive. Children younger than 10 were involved in organized pedophile rings. Child pornography was not limited to the inner cities but was increasing in rural and regional areas. The main reasons children were sold for sex were for accommodation, food, alcohol, clothes and drugs. (59)
The Amsterdam-based ChildRight organization estimates that the number of children in prostitution has increased by more than 300% between 1996 and 2001, going from 4000 children in 1996 to 15000 in 2001. ChildRight estimates that at least 5000 of these children in Dutch prostitution are trafficked from other countries, with a large segment of Nigerian girls. (60)
In Amsterdam, Netherlands, 80% of prostitutes are foreigners, and 70% have no immigration papers, suggesting that they were trafficked. (61)
The Netherlands and Germany (where prostitution is legal) are some of the most popular destinations in Europe of women trafficked from Ukraine and Russia. (62)
In Germany, 75% of the prostitutes are foreigners. (63)
There are 6,000 - 8,000 women in prostitution in Hamburg (Germany), about 70% of them are migrant prostitutes and 50% of those are East European women, from Poland, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Romania and the Czech Republic. The majority is controlled by pimps, isolated in apartment-brothels and controlled by Russian mafia organizations. (64)
Legalization does not stop prostitution from being harmful to the women in it. In the Netherlands, 90% of women prostituting mainly in clubs, brothels and windows reported extreme nervousness, a symptom which may reflect the physiologic hyperarousal diagnostic of PTSD. In addition, 75% to 80% of the Dutch women reported distrust, symptoms of depression, irritability, and chronic physical discomfort. (65)
Legalization does not stop violence against women in prostitution. In the Netherlands, 60% of prostituted women suffered physical assault, 70% experienced verbal threats of assaults, 40% experienced sexual violence and 40% were forced into prostitution and/or sexual abuse by acquaintances. The Vanwesenbeeck study concluded that the Netherlands' women who experienced the most extreme violence in prostitution were not represented in this research, thus all of the estimates reported were conservative. The actual incidence of violence against prostituted women in the Netherlands is probably greater. (66)
59% of the women prostituted in Germany, who were interviewed in one study, said they were no safer in legal as compared to illegal prostitution. 52% of them had been threatened with a weapon, 61% had been physically assaulted and 63% had been raped in prostitution. Of those raped, 50% had been raped more than five times. (67)
Panic buttons in [legal] brothels make as little sense as panic buttons in the homes of battered women. A bouncer in an Australian legal brothel said that when the women ring the buzzer, he breaks the door open, but there is really no way to prevent violence and, according to this bouncer, johns beat women with some regularity." (68)
THE MENTAL PROCESS OF "DISSOCIATION" IS EXTREMELY COMMON IN PROSTITUTED WOMEN:
"Dissociation permits psychological survival, whether the repeated trauma is slavery, military combat, incest, or prostitution. Dissociation is an elaborate escape and avoidance strategy in which overwhelming human cruelty results in fragmentation of the mind into different parts of the self that observe, experience, react, as well as those that do not know about the harm. Given the burden of lifetime trauma experienced by women in prostitution, the extended use of dissociation is easy to understand."
-- Melissa Farley. (69)
"Dissociation in prostitution results from both childhood sexual violence and sexual violence in adult prostitution. At the same time, dissociation is a job requirement for surviving prostitution."
-- Melissa Farley. (70)
One woman described the process of dissociation this way: "Prostitution is like rape. It's like when I was 15 years old and I was raped. I used to experience leaving my body. I mean that's what I did when that man raped me. I went to the ceiling, and I numbed myself because I didn't want to feel what I was feeling. I was very frightened. And while I was a prostitute I used to do that all the time. I would numb my feelings. I wouldn't even feel like I was in my body. I would actually leave my body and go somewhere else with my thoughts and with my feelings until he got off and it was over with. I don't know how else to explain it except that it felt like rape. It was rape to me." (71)
Another woman described her dissociation that way: "[In prostitution] I would just go someplace else mentally as well as emotionally. Soon I just lost track of days at a time. When I was awake, I started feeling "invisible". When I would come back home for a call, I used to stand in front of a mirror and pinch myself just to see if I was real. Spending months with people just looking at your body can make you wonder if "you" exist at all." (72)
A gradual depersonalization resulting from strip club prostitution was eloquently summarized by this stripper: "You start changing yourself to fit a fantasy role of what they think a woman should be. In the real world, these women don't exist. And they stare at you with this starving hunger. It just sucks you dry; you become this empty shell. They're not really looking at you. You're not you. You're not even there." (73)
Dissociative symptoms are frequently somatic in nature. A woman who was prostituting in a massage parlor made clear the process of dissociating those parts of her body that were being sold in prostitution: "The first time a guy try to feel up my breast, I got really angry and wouldn't let him. Pretty soon, I wised up. I figured I wasn't working here [at the massage parlor] for my health. So the next time a guy tried to feel me up I let him... Now I let most customers feel me up some. I've learned not to be there when they touch me. When they touch my breasts I tell myself they're not really touching me... And sometimes I wonder how I can let the men do that. I wonder what there is left for me. I wonder where I am." (74)
A woman working in a peep show described how prostitution seeped into her relationship with her partner, and the somatic dissociation contributing to that process: "At work, what my hands find when they touch my body is "product". Away from work, my body has continuity, integrity... Last night, lying in bed after work, I touched my belly, my breasts. They felt like Capri's [her peep show name] and they refused to switch back. When [her partner] kissed me I inadvertently shrunk from his touch. Shocked, we both jerked away and stared at each other. Somehow the glass had dissolved and he had become one of them." (75)
PROSTITUTION HARMS WOMEN, BUT MANY PEOPLE STILL DENY THAT FACT:
"One motivation for this denial of the harm of prostitution is clearly economic... Those who promote prostitution -- and by extension, trafficking -- are politically connected and well financed. Misinformation about prostitution is widespread -- in the media, in academia, in social service agencies, and embedded in the healthcare system. This can only happen because real voices of former victims of prostitution are systematically silenced. It also happens because knowing the truth about prostitution might interfere with men's comfort and pleasure in using women in prostitution."
-- Melissa Farley. (76)
"It is confusing to many, including governments, that women in prostitution appear to consent to prostitution. It is only when one looks carefully at the context of the consent, as well as past traumatic abuses, that this apparent consent to and promotion of prostitution by some women in the sex industry can be understood."
-- Melissa Farley. (77)
Playwright Carolyn Gage (in press) has written about the relationships between incest, dissociation, and advocacy for prostitution in the life of one woman: "Angie... had sexually serviced, she estimated, about two thousand men. She owned a home, which she referred to as "the house that fucking built." As a prostitute, Angie had become a spokeswoman for prostitution. She described herself as a "poster child" for liberal organizations advocating for legalization of prostitution. She was apparently their model of the happy, healthy hooker. Angie's prostitution was socially supported and paid well. To understand herself as a former child victim would be to see that her seemingly autonomous, even rebellious choices were, in fact, programmed responses to previous torture and captivity. The elements of choice and free will so critical to her sense of personhood were not as she had seen them. With every act of so-called sexual liberation, she was reinscribing her trauma. For three decades, Angie had had no memories of her sexual abuse as a child." (78)
"Angie's memories of chronic sexual abuse returned only after she had stopped prostitution. Until that time, the memories of childhood abuse were completely split off from her normal consciousness. Later, she met a supportive friend and took a class in which she began to write about her life. At this point, memories of the sexual abuse surfaced. For a time, she felt that she had betrayed other women by her previous advocacy of prostitution as a glamorous career choice." (79)
"The dissociated identity has a profound investment in denying that it is split off, because the original stakes were usually nothing less than survival. For this reason, the dissociated personality can be very persuasive, When Angie said she loved being a prostitute, loved servicing her clients, would have done it even without pay, she was persuasive because she believed it -- and because she believed it, she was credible." (80)
"If we view prostitution as violence against women, it makes no sense to legalize or decriminalize prostitution. The primary violence in prostitution is not "social stigma" as some maintain. Decriminalizing or legalizing prostitution would normalize and regulate practices which are human rights violations, and which in any other context would be legally actionable (sexual harassment, physical assault, rape, captivity, economic coercion.) or emotionally damaging (verbal abuse)."
-- Melissa Farley. (81)
In 1999, the Swedish Parliament put into effect a law which criminalizes the buying of sexual services but decriminalizes prostituted persons. This is a compassionate, social interventionist legal response to the cruelty of prostitution. (82) The Swedish parliament also criminalized pimping. The Swedish law has considerably reduced prostitution. It has enabled many people to escape prostitution by also providing assistance, helplines, and social services for them. (83)
A prostituted woman in Thailand told researchers: "I want the world to understand that prostitution is not a good job -- so that there are other jobs for women. I want the government to look into what's going on." (84)
"I feel like I imagine people who were in concentration camps feel when they get out... It's a real deep pain, an assault to my mind, my body, my dignity as a human being. I feel like what was taken away from me in prostitution is irretrievable."
-- A female survivor of prostitution. (85)
"US Slavery at its height was normalized as unpleasant but inevitable, yet it is now considered to be an institution that violated human rights. Perhaps we will at some point in the future look back on prostitution/trafficking with a similar historical perspective. It is my hope..."
-- Melissa Farley. (86)
(1) Gerda Lerner, The Creation of Patriarchy;1987.
(2) Kathleen Barry, The Prostitution of Sexuality; 1995.
(3) Melissa Farley Ed., Prostitution, Trafficking and Traumatic Stress; 2003; Prostitution Research and Education's website at prostitutionresearch.com
(4) Lisa Kramer, Emotional experiences of performing prostitution; 2003.
(5) Farley M., Preliminary report on prostitution in New Zealand, unpublished; 2003.
(6) In the preface of Prostitution, Trafficking and Traumatic Stress; 2003.
(7) Evelina Giobbe, WHISPER Oral History Project, Minneapolis, Minnesota; 1987.
(8) Kathleen Barry, The Prostitution of Sexuality; 1995.
(9) Melissa Farley et al., Prostitution and Trafficking in Nine Countries: An Update on Violence and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; 2003.
(10) Linda Fairstein, Sexual Violence: Our War Against Rape; 1993.
(11) Council for Prostitution Alternatives, "Characteristics of 800 CPA Participants"; 1991.
(12) Interviews with Nevada psychologists cited by Patricia Murphy, Making the Connections: women, work, and abuse, 1993; see also Rita Belton, Prostitution as Traumatic Reenactment; 1992, International Society for Traumatic Stress Annual Meeting, Los Angeles, CA M.H. Silbert M. and Pines A., 1982, "Victimization of street prostitutes", Victimology: An International Journal, 7: 122-133; Bagley C. and Young L., "Juvenile Prostitution and child sexual abuse: a controlled study", Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health, 1987.
(13) Quoted in Williams J. L., Sold out: A recovery guide for Prostitutes Anonymous; 1991.
(14) Andrea Dworkin, "Prostitution and Male Supremacy", in Life and Death; 1997.
(15) M.H. Silbert and A.M. Pines, 1982, "Victimization of street prostitutes", Victimology: An International Journal; 1982.
(16) D.Kelly Weisberg, Children of the Night: A Study of Adolescent Prostitution; 1985.
(17) Denise Gamache and Evelina Giobbe, Prostitution: Oppression Disguised as Liberation, National Coalition against Domestic Violence; 1990.
(18) Farley et al., Prostitution and Trafficking in Nine Countries: An Update on Violence and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; 2003.
(19) Silbert M., "The Effects on Juveniles of being used for pornography and prostitution"; in Zillman D. and Bryant J. ed., Pornography: Research Advances and Policy Considerations; 1989.
(20) Melissa Farley and Jacqueline Lynne, "Prostitution in Vancouver: Pimping Women and the Colonization of First Nations", in Not forSale; 2004.
(21) Farley M. Ed., Prostitution, Trafficking and Traumatic Stress; 2003; Stark C. and Whisnant R. Eds, Not for Sale; 2004; Prostitution Research and Education's website at prostitutionresearch.com
(22) Council on Prostitution Alternatives, Portland, 1994.
(23) Susan Kay Hunter, Council for Prostitution Alternatives' Annual Report; 1991, Portland, Oregon.
(24) Margaret Baldwin, "Split at the Root: Prostitution and Feminist Discourses of Law Reform", in Yale Journal of Law and Feminism; 1992.
(25) Melissa Farley, Isin Baral, Merab Kiremire, Ufuk Sezgin, "Prostitution in Five Countries: Violence and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder", in Feminism & Psychology 8; 1998.
(26) Melissa Farley, Prostitution, Slavery, and Complex PTSD, Paper presented at 13th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. Montreal, November 8, 1997.
(27) Graham D.L.R., with Rawlings E. and Rigsby R., Loving to Survive: Sexual Terror, Men's Violence, and Women's Lives; 1994.
(28) Pheterson G., The Prostitution Prism; 1996.
(29) Vanwesenbeeck I., Prostitutes' well-being and risk; 1994.
(30) Parriott R., Health Experiences of Twin Cities Women in Prostitution, Unpublished survey initiated by WHISPER, Minneapolis; 1994.
(31) source: darkness2light.org/KnowAbout/statistics_2.asp
(32) Dalla R.L., Exposing the Pretty Woman Myth; 2000, quoted in Farley et al., Prostitution and Trafficking in Nine Countries: An Update on Violence and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; 2003.
(33) Lange W.R. et al., The Lexington addicts; 1989.
(34) Raymond J. et al., A comparative study of women trafficked in the migration process, Coalition Against Trafficking in Women; 2002.
(35) Kramer L., Emotional Experiences of Performing Prostitution; 2003.
(36) Gossop M. et al., Sexual behavior and its relationship to drug-taking among prostitutes in South London; 1994.
(37) Quoted in Farley M. Ed., Prostitution, Trafficking and Traumatic Stress; 2003.
(38) Joe Parker, How Prostitution Works, on the website of Prostitution Research and Education, and also in Not for Sale; 2004.
(39) Farley M., Prostitution harms women even if indoors; 2005.
(40) Boyer D., Chapman L., and Marshall B.K., Survival sex in King County: Helping women out, Report to the King County Women's Advocacy Board; 1993.
(41) Farley m. et al., Prostitution and Trafficking in Nine Countries: An Update on Violence and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; 2003.
(42) Raphael J. and Shapiro D.L., Sisters Speak Out: The Lives and needs of prostituted women in Chicago; 2002.
(43) Church et al, 1991, quoted in Evidence Received for Prostitution Tolerance Zones (Scotland) Bill Stage 1; 2004.
(44) Ross C.A., Anderson G., Heber S. and Norton G.R., Dissociation and abuse among multiple personality disorder patients, prostitutes, and exotic dancers; 1990.
(45) Farley et al, Prostitution in Five Countries: Violence and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; 1998.
(46) Farley et al., Prostitution and Trafficking in Nine Countries: An Update on Violence and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; 2003.
(47) Julie Bindel and Liz Kelly, Child and Woman Abuse Studies Unit, London Metropolitan University, 2003.
(48) Raymond J., Ten reasons for not legalizing prostitution, on the website of Prostitution Research and Education, and also in Farley M. Ed., Prostitution, Trafficking, and Traumatic Stress; 2003.
(49) Budapest Group, The relationship between Organized Crime and Trafficking in Aliens; 1999.
(50) U.S. Department of State, 1999 Country report on Human Rights Practices, "Australia", Section 6F; 2000.
(51) Mary Sullivan and Sheila Jeffreys, Legalising Prostitution is Not the Answer: The Example of Victoria, Australia, source: action.web.ca/home/catw/attach/ AUSTRALIAlegislation20001.pdf
(52)The Age, 1 March, 1999.
(53) Mary Sullivan and Sheila Jeffreys, Legalising Prostitution is Not the Answer: The Example of Victoria, Australia, source: action.web.ca/home/catw/attach/ AUSTRALIAlegislation20001.pdf
(54)The Age, 28 Feb, 1999.
(55) Melbourne: Public Health Division, Victorian Government department of Human Services, Proposed Health Regulations 2001: Impact Statement.
(56) Pyett P. and Warr D., Women at risk in sex work: Strategies for survival; 1999.
(57) ECPAT report, Agence France-Presse, 13 April 1998.
(58) ECPAT Australia, Youth for Sale: ECPAT Australia's inquiry into the commercial sexual exploitation of children in Australia; 1998.
(59) Sarah Hudson, "Child sex soaring", Herald Sun, 30 September 1998; and "Children, 10, swapping sex for groceries, drugs", Courier Mail, 30 September 1998.
(60) Tiggeloven C., Child prostitution in the Netherlands; 2001.
(61) Marie-Victoire Louis, "Legalizing Pimping, Dutch Style," Le Monde Diplomatique; 8 March 1997.
(62) Vladmir Isachenkov, "Soviet Women Slavery Flourishes", Associated Press; 6 November 1997.
(63) Altink, 1995, p.33; Trafficking of Women to the European Union: Characteristic, Trends and Policy Issues, European Conference on Trafficking in Women, June 1996, IOM; 7 May 1996.
(64) Hamburg police Department, Lucia Brussa, Transnational AIDS/STD Prevention Among Migrant Prostitutes in Europe, TAMPEP; 1996.
(65) Vanwesenbeeck I., Prostitutes' well-being and risk; 1994.
(66) Vanwesenbeeck I. et al, Professional HIV risk taking, levels of victimization, and well-being in female prostitutes in the Netherlands; 1995; Vanwesenbeeck I., Prostitutes' well-being and risk; 1994.
(67) Farley et al., Prostitution and Trafficking in Nine Countries: An Update on Violence and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; 2003.
(68) Jeffreys S., The legalisation of prostitution: A failed social experiment; 2003, quoted in Farley M., "Bad for the Body, Bad for the Heart": Prostitution harms women even if legalized or decriminalized; 2004.
(69) Ross C., Farley M. and Schwartz H., Dissociation among women in prostitution; 2003.
(70) Farley M., "Bad for the Body, Bad for the Heart": Prostitution harms women even if legalized or decriminalized; 2004.
(71) Evelina Giobbe, Prostitution: Buying the right to rape; 1991.
(72) Quoted in Williams J. L., Sold out: A recovery guide for Prostitutes Anonymous; 1991.
(73) Unnamed woman, personal interview; 1998, Farley M., quoted in Ross C., Farley M. and Schwartz H., Dissociation among women in prostitution; 2003.
(74) Edelstein J., In the massage parlor; 1986, quoted in Ross C., Farley M. and Schwartz H., Dissociation among women in prostitution; 2003.
(75) Funari V., Naked, naughty, nasty: Peepshow reflections; 1997, quoted in Ross C., Farley M. and Schwartz H., Dissociation among women in prostitution; 2003.
(76) In the preface of Prostitution, Trafficking and Traumatic Stress; 2003.
(77) Farley M., "Bad for the Body, Bad for the Heart": Prostitution harms women even if legalized or decriminalized; 2004.
(78) Gage C., in press, quoted in Farley M., "Bad for the Body, Bad for the Heart": Prostitution harms women even if legalized or decriminalized; 2004.
(79) Farley M., "Bad for the Body, Bad for the Heart": Prostitution harms women even if legalized or decriminalized; 2004.
(80) Gage C., in press, quoted in Farley M., "Bad for the Body, Bad for the Heart": Prostitution harms women even if legalized or decriminalized; 2004.
(81) Melissa Farley, Prostitution: Factsheet on Human Rights Violations, on Prostitution Research and Education's website.
(82) See Sven-Axel Mansson and Ulla-Carin Hedin, 1999, "Breaking the Matthew Effect - On Women Leaving Prostitution," International Journal of Social Work. Also see Prostitution Research & Education web site, http://www.prostitutionresearch.com for a copy of the Swedish law.
(83) Gunilla Ekberg, The Swedish Law that Prohibits the Purchase of Sexual Services: Best Practices for Prevention of Prostitution and Trafficking in Human Beings; 2004.
(84) Quoted in Farley et al., Prostitution and Trafficking in Nine Countries: An Update on Violence and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; 2003.
(85) Giobbe E., Prostitution: Buying the right to rape; 1991, cited by Jeffreys S., The Idea of Prostitution; 1997.
(86) In the preface of Prostitution, Trafficking and Traumatic Stress; 2003.